A lumbar disc herniation is one of the most common spinal degenerative disorders, often leading to low back pain and radicular leg pain (Yang et al., 2015). 7% in low back injuries are disc injuries; Discogenic pain typically increases with sitting, bending, coughing, sneezing, or activities that compress the disc.
Interestingly, there is also a number of asymptomatic disc herniation in people (21%), who are diagnosed accidentally without suffering from any problems at all (Yang et al., 2015).
It can also involve a series of smaller traumatic events. The accumulation of these events is generally believed to yield the degenerative nature of the annulus (outer wall of the disc). The damaged annulus is believed to allow water and protein molecules to escape the confines of the nucleus (central part of the disc) and cause tearing or bulging of the disc.
Radiculopathy (leg pain along line of nerve distribution) can occur with lumbar disc pain. Pain may be exacerbated with poor sitting postures, and pain may be reduced during standing or walking. Injury occurs typically during a flexion, rotation, or combined flexion-rotation injury.
Management involves joint and soft tissue mobilisation, strengthening of the lumbar spine.
Yang H. et al., 2015, Low back pain associated with lumbar disc herniation: role of moderately degenerative disc and annulus fibrosus tears, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 8(2), pp: 1634-1644