Your feet are amazing
The average person walks 8,000 to 10,000 steps per day (source from: foot.com). Its phenominal when you think about it.
The Foot and Ankle Joint Anatomy
The ankle joint is formed by 3 main bones
- and talus.
The foot has 26 bones, as a result, the foot and ankle contains 33 joints, 107 ligaments and 19 muscles and tendons. Although the ankle joint is talked about as one single joint, it actually articulates with three joints:
- talocalcaneal (subtalar),
- tibiotalar (talocrural) and the
- transverse-tarsal (talocalcaneonavicular) joint (Brockett and Chapman, 2016).
The Subtalar Joint:
The calcaneus (heel bone) is the largest and strongest in the foot. The talus sits on top of it and allows the foot to turn out and turn in. These two motions are the main movement in this part of the joint (Brockett and Chapman, 2016). Strong ligaments and tendons support these bones (Brockett and Chapman, 2016).
The Tibiotalar Joint (talocrural joint):
It connects the lower leg and the talus. The talus itself is not connected to any muscle and with its position between the two crural bones converts the structure into a hinge joint, that contributes to the Flexing Pointing of the foot (Brockett and Chapman, 2016).
The joint is more stable in a flexed position and during stance phase and provides resistance into eversion. Outside of these positions stability is given by soft tissue.
The main ligaments that guarantee stability are the syndesmosis between fibula and tibia (which controls unwanted motion during activity of daily living); the medial compartment of the ankle is supported by the deltoid ligaments (fan-shaped medial collateral ligaments), which are the key to resisting eversion (foot points outward) and valgus stress of the joint. The lateral collateral ligaments reduce inversion (foot points inward) of the joint.
Biomechanics of the Ankle Joint:
The main movements of the ankle are pointing and flexing, left and right movement and tilting of the ankle inwards and outwards. The 3D movements enable the flawless human gait (Brockett and Chapman, 2016).
Ankle sprains account for 15-20% of all sports injuries (Fatoye and Haigh, 2016). During running and stop and go activities, the foot and ankle is challenged to carry, move and control the motion of the whole body.
This is more common because of the anatomy of the ankle. The inner ankle is more stable than the outside; therefore, inversion trauma in the foot/ankle (the foot turns inwards whilst the the ankle “rolls over” the inturned foot)(source from: foot.com).
The foot and ankle enable the smooth motion of walking that we take for granted. Big variances can be seen in walking and running styles, showing our ability to adapt. For assessment and a plan to optimise your foot and ankle movement please get in touch.